Research Writing Assignment 2

Assignment Instructions

Using the information from your Week 3 Writing Assignment as well as any instructor input, develop the following elements in an essay that is approximately 5-7 pages in length.

  1. Identify a known or likely goal of your chosen organization.
  2. Identify a specific message and its target audience that will further that goal. You will need to incorporate references to further demonstrate this.
  3. Identify a specific principle, theory, or bias discussed in Week 1 or Week 2 that would most likely make this message work with your target audience. You need to place this within the literature.
  4. Identify a specific practice discussed in Week 3 that would make an optimal means to communicate your message. You need to place this within the literature.
  5. Complete a message with a description of your messaging points and any supporting images, video, sounds, etc. This section should be no less than 250 words.

Upload your response to this assignment by Sunday 11:55 EST Week 5.

Format: Your paper should include a title page, body, and references page. Your paper should have 1-inch borders on all four sides, use times new roman-12 point font, be double spaced, and not have an extra space in between paragraphs. (You may need to turn this off in MS word by going to paragraph and clicking “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style). Since this is an INTL course you need to use the Turabian parenthetical (in-text) citation style with a references page.

As you proof read your assignment I encourage you to work with Belcher, Wendy Laura. 2009. “Editing Your Sentences” In Writing Your Journal Article in 12 Weeks: A Guide to Academic Publishing Success. Sage. This resource has a nice step by step process for enhancing your writing.

Week 2: Bias below

Heuristics and biases

Heuristics associate with the mental shortcuts for promptly arriving in decisions in an informal manner that is viewed as serviceable within a complicated surrounding; connecting with the white propaganda(Bernays, 3). Once the heuristics fail in meeting their intended purposes of balancing the truth and judgment, results in a cognitive bias that operates in scenarios with inadequate information of the causes of the threats, hence drawing incorrect conclusions. The latter relates to the black propaganda experienced in the 20th and 21st centuries.


Bernays, Edward. 1928. Propaganda. New York: Horace Liveright: 47-114, 150-159. Accessed January 23, 2017. (76 pages)

Week 3:

Information operations

Information operations are the management of information during military operations in a manner that the adversary is caught off-guard through influence, corruption, disruption or usurpation of their decision-making strategies. Therefore, it is a means to an end regarding disrupting the adversary operations while ensuring an advantage over them. It is used as a way of maintaining information superiority over the foes at all times. As such, information operations is not just about individual capabilities or unique strategies but rather a collection of strategies and plans that collectively give one a superior advantage over the foes (Latimer, 2003). Numerous information practices are available and that are solely meant to ensure information superiority against adversaries. Consequently, the different practices when utilized need to be synchronized through closely-monitored coordination and planning since it is only through such harmonization that the desired objectives are guaranteed; otherwise the safety and thus the credibility of the information will be guaranteed (Doob, 1949). All these strategies need to be handled properly to ensure a foolproof and tightly-handled information system.

In the scenario that some classified information has been leaked to the foes, there are some ways through which different information strategies can be integrated to ensure that such a leak is contained, discredited of used as an advantage against the foes (Latimer, 2003). The trick is to ensure that the leakage is contained to ensure the enemies is not advantaged in any way as a result. In such a scenario, the best strategy to employ would be military deception, which helps in deliberate misleading of the adversaries, where the usage of such leaked information only serves to harm their operations as opposed to giving them an added advantage (Doob, 1949). Military deception would help cause ambiguity of the leaked information, thus leading to adversaries misallocating resources, revealing strengths and remaining exposed.

Some of the strategies in the military deception that can be utilized in this scenario include feints, demonstrations, and propaganda, among others. In the case where critical operational information has already been leaked to the adversary, feints can be used to deceive the adversary about the said information (Johnson & Meyeraan, 2003). For instance, a case where time or type of an offensive action has been leaked, feints can be used in contacting the enemy to ensure they use the leaked information to the letter, meaning they would try to be offensive to ensure they are not caught off-guard in case of an attack. That done, it would be easy to change the scenario and be on the actual offensive by changing tactics on the said attack (Johnson & Meyeraan, 2003). Here, one utilized the psychology of misdirection, where the enemy is misled into thinking they have an advantage while in a real sense they are not.

Additionally, military deception by a leak on planned combat strategies can be carried out through demonstrations (Doob, 1949). In this case, the military presents a show of force thus lead to the enemy letting their guard down by returning the force with probably their might. Here, contact with the adversary is not intended thus they are made to assume to assume there is all seriousness in such a show. The enemy gets exposed; hence the change of tactic can easily have them defeated (Johnson & Meyeraan, 2003). Here, the psychology of superiority and might is used to show the adversary that one is capable of anything thus being aware of the planned strategies is a non-issue.

Additionally, military deception can be actualized through displays. The display includes simulations of disguising objects or abilities that might not necessarily exist but are made to appear as though they are real (Latimer, 2003). This is used in the case of a leak of the combat strategies, where the military exaggerates power capabilities to scare the enemy into submission. Here, exaggeration is used as the psychological tool to deceive the enemy into believing the existence of abilities that are mere hoaxes.


Doob, L. W. (1949). The strategies of psychological warfare. Public Opinion Quarterly, 13(4), 635-644.

Johnson, M., & Meyeraan, J. (2003). Military Deception: Hiding the real-showing the fake. National Defense Univ Norfolk Va Joint And Combined Warfighting School.

Latimer, J. (2003). Deception in War: Art Bluff Value Deceit Most Thrilling Episodes Cunning mil hist from The Trojan. The Overlook Press.

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