Analysis essay of American and Chinese culture. (2500-3000 words)

In the essay, please follow the structure as below:

1.
Describe a theory that will guide your analysis of American and Chinese cultures. (250 words)

Select one of these theories:
“Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory” or “Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory”.

2.
Based on the theory , explain how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. (300 words for each, total 900 words)

3.
Based on the theory , explain how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and one other psychological process within it. (400 words for each topic, total 1600 words)

4.
Explain any biases that may influence your analysis of these cultures and explain why. (250 words)

  • Please support your responses using the Resources and the current literature.
  • Please use plagiarism check.

    —————————————————————————————-

Detail Resources, materials and instructions for each paragraph:

1.
Describe a theory that will guide your analysis of American and Chinese cultures.
(250 words)

Resources:
Matsumoto, D. (Ed.). (2001). The handbook of culture and psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Chapter 4, “Culture, Science, and Indigenous Psychologies: An Integrated Analysis”

2.
Based on the theory, explain how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it.

How each culture influences Human development‘ (300 words)

While cognitive processes are universal, culture shapes human development, states Mishra (Matsumoto (Ed.), 2001) in the course text. When an infant is born into a specific culture and socialized into this context, the human development process is assumed to be impacted by the values of the society.

Resources:
The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

  • Chapter 6, “Culture, Context, and Development”
  • Chapter 7, “Cognition Across Cultures”
  • Chapter 8, “Everyday Cognition: Where Culture, Psychology, and Education Come Together”

    Mishra, R. C. (2001). Cognition across cultures. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 119–135). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

    Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2004). Why we need to explore development in its cultural context Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369–386.

    Tsethlikai, M. (2011). An exploratory analysis of American Indian children’s cultural engagement, fluid cognitive skills, and standardized verbal IQ scores. Developmental Psychology, 47(1), 192–202.

    Uichol, K., & Young-Shin, P. (2006). Indigenous psychological analysis of academic achievement in Korea: The influence of self-efficacy, parents, and culture. International Journal of Psychology, 41(4), 287–292.

How each culture influencesIdentity development‘ (300 words)

The concept of self is powerful because it portrays who you are to your community. Is this concept innate, or is it developed by those around us?
Consider if you were born in a culture of another country. Would you use the same adjectives to describe yourself, or do you believe that the culture would influence your concept of self?
There are differing beliefs concerning how these changes would influence the concept of self. There is a great deal of research on individualism versus collectivism to explain the variety of cultural differences that make up a person’s identity.
These studies show a variation in communication, expression, perception, and conflict avoidance that has become a framework of cultural theory (Matsumoto & Juang, 2008).

Resources:

Course Text: The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

  • Chapter 13, “Culture and Human Inference: Perspectives From Three Traditions”
  • Chapter 17, “Culture and Social Cognition: Toward a Social Psychology of Cultural Dynamics”
  • Weisner, T. S. (2002). Ecocualltur understanding of children’s developmental pathways. Human Development, 45(4), 275–281.


How each culture influencesPersonality development’ (300 words)

Research has explored universal and culture-specific personality traits. “The Five-Factor Model,” also known as the “Big Five,” has identified five universal personality traits—openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN). In contrast, the “Five-Factor Theory” (FFT) of personality “suggests that the universal personality traits representing basic tendencies are expressed in characteristic ways; these characteristic ways can be largely influenced by the culture in which one exists” (Matsumoto & Juang, 2008, p. 268). Culture-specific personality traits, expressed by individuals in a certain culture, have also been identified in research.

Resources:

McCrae, R. R. (2002). Cross-cultural research on the five-factor model of personality. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 6, Chapter 1).

McCrae, R. R., Terracciano, A., De Fruyt, F., De Bolle, M., Gelfand, M. J., & Costa Jr., P. T. (2010). The validity and structure of culture-level personality scores: Data from ratings of young adolescents. Journal of Personality, 78(3), 815–838.

3. Based on the theory, explain how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and one other psychological process within it.


Expression of emotion

Culture influences the way that a person chooses to display their emotions.
Research has been previously conducted to prove that cultures have an influence on the expression methods for the emotions. Culture influences how people have emotions and when people show these emotions meaning that it influences the responses to certain situations (Matsumoto & Kupperbusch, 2001).

Each culture has its own norms, attitudes, and beliefs that can impact how emotions are displayed. While researchers have discovered universality of emotions and facial expressions among cultures, the display and intensity of these emotions, facial expressions, and attributions differ across cultures. For example, in the Amish culture, members do not readily weep in the event of death because of the way they view death in the life cycle.

Resources:

The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Chapter 10, “Culture and Emotion”

  • Luo, L., Gilmour, R., & Kao, S. (2001). Cultural values and happiness: An east-west dialogue. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4), 477–493.
  • Matsumoto, D., & Kupperbusch, C. (2001). Idiocentric and allocentric differences in emotional expression, experience, and the coherence between expression and experience. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4(2), 113–131.


Development of morality/
Moral Reasoning

To understand a culture, you must first understand its principles and ethics. These standards, also known as a moral code, are the foundation for acceptable behaviors and thinking. Matsumoto and Juang (2008) note that this moral code is created within the “specific culture and society, handed down from one generation to the next” (pp. 102). Each culture has its own set of beliefs about what is appropriate and fair concerning civil rights, duties, and freedoms. Consequently, a culture’s moral code also molds the laws of each culture.

How do people define morality, justice, and fairness? Is it based on a predetermined set of values from their family and community, internalized ideals, or actual behaviors? While you may have your opinions about how your values and beliefs were formed, multiple theories exist to explain the relationship between culture and the formation of a person’s belief system.

For example, a person who was raised as a Christian may find going to church important. Therefore, going to church for this particular Christian is a value. Conversely, a person who was raised as an Atheist may not find the need to go to church.

Resources:

• Course Text: The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

    • Chapter 9, “Culture and Moral Development”
  • Article: Bedford, O., & Hwang, K. (2003). Guilt and shame in Chinese culture: A cross-cultural framework from the perspective of morality and identity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 33(2), 127–144.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Commons, M., Galaz‐Fontes, J., & Morse, S. (2006). Leadership, cross‐cultural contact, socio‐economic status, and formal operational reasoning about moral dilemmas among Mexican non‐literate adults and high school students. Journal of Moral Education, 35(2), 247–267.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Humphries, M. L., & Jagers, R. J. (2009). Culture: A possible predictor of morality for African American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(2), 205–215.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Jensen, L. (2008). Through two lenses: A cultural–developmental approach to moral psychology. Developmental Review, 28(3), 289–315.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the ERIC database.
  • Article: Sunar, D. (2002). The psychology of morality. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture(Unit 2, Chapter 11). Retrieved from http://www.wwu.edu/culture/Sunar.htm


Development of gender

“Cross cultural studies of gender are concerned with both the degree to which psychological processes and behaviors are relatively invariant across cultures and how they vary systematically with cultural influences,” according to Best and Williams (Matsumoto (Ed.), 2001, p. 197). Cultures often differ in the emphasis placed on social roles assigned to males and females; appropriate gender relations based on sexual role ideologies; gender stereotypes; and the incorporation of masculinity and femininity into self-concept and self-perception. Children are socialized into these gender roles through multiple agents, such as parents, siblings, peers, teachers, religious institutions, and various forms of media.

Gender and sexuality are intertwined in many cultures. (Gardiner & Kosmitzki, 2011) Socialization agents teach the appropriate behaviors for gender and the acceptable sexual attitudes and behaviors within a culture. Cultural differences exist around the world and across countries. For example, cultural differences may exist through the number of partners allowed in a marriage, expectations for males and females, and knowledge and application of safe sex practices. Differences may also arise in what is permitted and acceptable, such as premarital sex, same-sex relationships, and extramarital relationships. The consequences for an individual deviating from these cultural expectations also vary from culture to culture.

Resources:

• Course Text: The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

    • Chapter 11, “Gender and Culture”
  • Article: Afable-Munsuz, A., & Brindis, C. D. (2006). Acculturation and the sexual and reproductive health of Latino youth in the United States: A literature review. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 38(4), 208–219.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Aubrey, J. S., & Harrison, K. (2004). The gender-role content of children’s favorite television programs and its links to their gender-related perceptions. Media Psychology, 6(2), 111–146.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Communication & Mass Media Complete database.
  • Article: Crouter, A. C., Manke, B. A., & McHale, S. M. (1995). The family context of gender intensification in early adolescence. Child Development, 66(2), 317–329.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Echávarri, R. A., & Ezcurra, R. (2010). Education and gender bias in the sex ratio at birth: Evidence from India. Demography, 47(1), 249–268.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Business Source Complete database.
  • Article: Ghule, M., Balaiah, D., & Joshi, B. (2007). Attitude towards premarital sex among rural college youth in Maharashtra, India. Sexuality & Culture, 11(4), 1–17.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Lancaster, G., Maitra, P., & Ray, R. (2008). Household expenditure patterns and gender bias: Evidence from selected Indian states. Oxford Development Studies, 36(2), 133–157.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Miyajima, T. (2008). Gender inequality among Japanese high school teachers: Women teachers’ resistance to gender bias in occupational culture. Journal of Education for Teaching, 34(4), 319–332.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Mohammadi, M. R., Mohammad K., Farahani, F. K., Alikhani, S., Zare, M., Tehrani, F.R.,…Alaeddini, F. (2006). Reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behavior among adolescent males in Tehran, Iran. International Family Planning Perspectives, 32(1), 35–44.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Para-Mallam, F. J., & Funmi, J. (2010). Promoting gender equality in the context of Nigerian cultural and religious expression: Beyond increasing female access to education. Compare: A Journal of Comparative & International Education, 40(4), 459–477.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Educational Research Complete database.
  • Article: Sadker, D. (1999). Gender equity: Still knocking at the classroom door. Educational Leadership, 56(7), 22–26. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Sadker, D., & Zittleman, K. (2005). Gender bias lives, for both sexes. Education Digest, 70(8), 27–30.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Witt, S. D. (1997). Parental influence on children’s socialization to gender roles. Adolescence, 32(126), 253–259.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Medline With Full Text database.



Development of aggression
Aggression is, “an act or behavior that intentionally hurts another person, either physically or psychologically” (Matsumoto & Juang, 2008, p. 389). While some expressions of aggression are universal, cross-cultural differences exist in the type and level of aggression that are considered to be legally or socially sanctioned. There have been multiple reasons proposed by theorists to explain these cultural differences in the type (verbal, physical, etc.) and level of aggression expressed across cultures.


Likewise when considering the example of behavior, a person who was raised to fight, as compared to a person who was raised to remain peaceful, will influence psychology subjectively.

Resources:

The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

  • Chapter 17, “Culture and Social Cognition: Toward a Social Psychology of Cultural Dynamics”
  • Chapter 19, “Social Justice From a Cultural Perspective”

  • Article: Thanzami, V. L., & Archer, J. (2005). Beliefs about aggression in British students from individualist and collectivist cultures. Aggressive Behavior, 31(4), 350–358.
  • Article: Simister, J. (2010). Domestic violence and female genital mutilation in Kenya: Effects of ethnicity and education. Journal of Family Violence, 25(3), 247–257. Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Mann, J., & Takyi, B. (2009). Autonomy, dependence or culture: Examining the impact of resources and socio-cultural processes on attitudes towards intimate partner violence in Ghana, Africa. Journal of Family Violence, 24(5), 323–335.Article: Leung, A. Y., & Cohen, D. (2011).
  • Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 100(3), 507–526.
  • Article: Lee, M. R., & Ousey, G. C. (2011). Reconsidering the culture and violence connection: Strategies of action in the Rural South. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(5), 899–929.
  • Article: Hall, G., Teten, A. L., DeGarmo, D. S., Sue, S., & Stephens, K. A. (2005). Ethnicity, culture, and sexual aggression: Risk and protective factors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(5), 830–840.
  • Article: Christiansen, L. (2009). “In our culture”—How debates about Zimbabwe’s domestic violence law became a “culture struggle”. NORA: Nordic Journal of Women’s Studies, 17(3), 175–191.

4.
Explain any biases that may influence your analysis of these cultures and explain why.

In cross-cultural research, you need to ensure that there is equivalence throughout the study, as well as a lack of bias in your measures, associations, and conclusions.

Equivalence is the evidence that your research uses the same techniques and measures to test the same phenomenon across cultures, and this equivalence helps your research to be considered valid and reliable.

In addition to equivalence, you must be aware of the potential for personal bias in any cross-cultural research you conduct.

A bias is prejudicial predisposition that can prevent impartial thinking. In cross-cultural research, a bias can appear in various forms, such as the Barnum statement (a one-size-fits-all description) or the self-fulfilling prophecy (your assumptions about others can cause them to meet those expectations) (Matsumoto & Juang, 2008; Shiraev & Levy, 2010).

In The Handbook of Culture and Psychology p.81-p.89, the author introduces the construct bias/ methods bias/ item bias and how to deal with bias.

Resources:

The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

  • Chapter 5, “The Evolution of Cross-Cultural Research Methods”
  • Chapter 16, “Polishing the Jade: A Modest Proposal for Improving the Study of Social Psychology Across Cultures”

    • Article: Byrne, B. M., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2010). Testing for measurement and structural equivalence in large-scale cross-cultural studies: Addressing the issue of nonequivalence. International Journal of Testing, 10(2), 107–132.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the PsycARTICLES database.

  • Article: Chen, F. F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 95(5), 1005–1018.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the Academic Search Complete database.
  • Article: Li, J., & Karakowsky, L. (2001). Do we see eye-to-eye? Implications of cultural differences for cross-cultural management research and practice. The Journal of Psychology, 135(5), 501–517.
    Retrieved from the Walden Library using the ProQuest database.
  • Article: Peña, E. D. (2007). Lost in translation: Methodological considerations in cross cultural research. Child Development, 78(4), 1255–1264.

"Our Prices Start at $11.99. As Our First Client, Use Coupon Code GET15 to claim 15% Discount This Month!!":

Get started