Can you answer these five questions? (each question one paragraph)
1.What has your experience been with RTI?
2.What do you know about RTI and MTSS?
3. What is and is not Response to Invervention (RTI)?
4. What are essential components of a tiered model?
5. What are the most effective RTI design framework?
Can you respond two colleagues? I will paste the answer of all of them.
In the older model to support students with special needs, schools would almost have to allow students to fail, and at times for quite a long time, before a student would receive help. On the contrary, Response to Intervention, or RTI, is a relatively new initiative in education that serves to provide students with needed interventions long before a student fails or becomes legally eligible for support through an IEP. It serves to provide students with what they need, and also helps to ensure that students are not wrongfully identified for special education services.
RTI begins with a universal screener to identify struggling learners, and then is designed to provide interventions to match the needs of the students (Applebaum 2009). The tiered model encompasses all students receiving Tier 1, or quality classroom instruction, then some student (5-10%) receiving small group, targeted interventions in Tier 2, and finally, a few students (1-5%) may need Tier 3, intensive interventions. These interventions may be academic and/or behavioral, and must be continuously monitored for success. These Tiers are fluid, meaning students may move in and out of Tiers as they make progress or have further difficulties with their academic and behavioral goals (Applebaum 2009).
RTI is best implemented with a team approach, including multiple stakeholders. The team consists of the general education teacher, parents, administrators, interventionists, support personnel, and special education teachers as well. This may vary from district to district depending on the available personnel of the school It is important that all stakeholders have the same goal in mind, as Applebaum states, “to discuss students who are struggling, help design intervention plans, and to meet as needed to re-evaluate and assess the effectiveness of the interventions” (Applebaum 2009). It is also important that each team member has a well defined role.
While RTI serves to provide more equity in the classroom and provides each student with individualized interventions, one downside is that it can be very difficult to implement and adds a lot more responsibility to the general education teacher. I am not opposed to RTI in the least, but I do think that just like many great initiatives in education, there is a caveat as well. The general education teachers need to be provided trainings, resources, strategies, and above all, time to implement interventions and monitor the progress of the their students.
The RTI process was new to my district 8 years ago when I started teaching, so I came into education on the tail end of using the discrepancy model and transitioning to RTI. As a building, we created an RTI model to fit the needs of our students.
RTI is a process of screening all students to determine which students need interventions in academics or behavior. The screening data must be analyzed by a team consisting of general education teachers, special education teachers, support staff members, and administrators. This data will determine which tier students will be placed in, and these tiers determine the level of intervention that they may need. The screening data may also determine which students are excelling and they would need enrichment services. The standard RTI model uses three tiers: level 1 consists of quality core curriculum, level 2 provides targeted interventions, and level 3 consists of very intensive and individualized interventions. Maryln Appelbaum (2009), states that “Typically, eighty to ninety percent of students are learning find and can continue to be taught in the regularly prescribed manner. The other ten to twenty percent of students are identified as being at risk and need academic or behavioral interventions or both (pg. 5). The 10-20 percent of the student population that struggles will be placed in tier 2 or tier 3 according to their deficits and historical data. This information should also be shared with parents when possible. One of the most important processes with RTI is progress monitoring. All students, no matter what tier they are in, need to have their progress assessed often in order to make sure that they are meeting progress. If a student is not making adequate progress, the RTI team must again meet and make necessary intervention changes.
As stated, RTI is a process of providing interventions to students who struggle. RTI is not a process for special education students only or even a process of labeling a student with a disability. Of course, entitlement and RTI now go hand to hand, in my experience many teachers think the RTI team consists of only special education staff. Instead, in the most effective RTI models, the team should consist of general education and special education teachers, and the goal is always to provide interventions to support students in general education. If a student does not respond to intensive interventions over a long period of time, then a case study may be appropriate.