Philosophy Discussion Forum
We shall be seeing Kant, Aristotle/Plato, the Utilitarians, (Mill, Bentham, Taylor, and Hume (by inference)), and Feminists, such as Nel Noddings, Carol Gilligan, among others.
Aristotle and Plato: they believed in Virtues:
Wisdom/Knowledge, Courage, Temperance, Justice, and Compassion. Plato laid out his views in THE REPUBLIC.
Aristotle laid it out in The Nicomachean Ethics.
KANT: Here is Mr. Deontology, with his Categorical Imperative and Duty-based theory in which results/Consequences (alone) do not make an action ethical/moral.
We call him the FIRST Non-Consequentialist.
UTILITARIANS: These are the original “BOTTOM-LINE” Folks. Today we call them Consequentialists. To determine if an action is ethical/Moral, one looks at the Results. . .
FEMINISTS: There is, as you saw in Feminist Epistemology and Metaphysics, a variety of views. Start with Carol Gilligan’s work. Then, go to the Ethics of Care, and then to Martha Nussbaum’s “Capabilties” Approach. . .
As you can see, there is a variety of views in THE FIELD, in general.
Other key distinctions: Cultural Relativism, Subjectivism, and Universalism. . .:-)
Now, take a bit of time to research (since you will need these for NEXT WEEK, as well), and identify the TWO, primary and generic schools of Moral/Ethical Philosophy, the views of some of the folks I mentioned, in MORE detail, and to which school the afore-mentioned Moral Philosophers belong. . . You have Stanford materials as a research starting point. . .:-)